Find Two Sources

Amino acids are divided into two categories, "glucogenic" and "ketogenic," depending on the type of intermediates produced during their breakdown. In humans, two amino acids, leucine and lysine, are exclusively ketogenic, while five others are amphibolic, meaning they can be both ketogenic and glucogenic. The difference between these amino acids and others, like proline, lies in the intermediates they produce. Ketogenic amino acids form acetoacetate or acetyl CoA, while glucogenic amino acids form pyruvate, α-ketoglutarate, succinyl CoA, fumarate, or oxaloacetate. Some references mention threonine, which can be considered either glucogenic or both glucogenic and ketogenic. Overall, these amino acids are important for energy production and can be classified as either glucogenic or ketogenic.

Here are two reliable sources discussing glucogenic and ketogenic amino acids:

  1. "Amino Acid Metabolism" on the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) website provides detailed information on amino acid metabolism, including the processes and classification of amino acids. This information is accessible at
  2. The "Amino Acid Metabolism" page on ScienceDirect offers an in-depth analysis of amino acid metabolism, explaining the differences between glucogenic and ketogenic amino acids, their roles in metabolic processes, and more. This source can be found at

These sources can provide you with comprehensive details and further understanding of the topic.

Glucogenic amino acid - WikipediaGlucogenic amino acid - Wikipedia

Related Questions

Work fast from anywhere

Stay up to date and move work forward with BrutusAI on macOS/iOS/web & android. Download the app today.